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If f is a symbolic expression, then
int(f)
attempts to find another symbolic expression, F, so that diff(F) = f. That is, int(f) returns the indefinite integral or antiderivative of f (provided one exists in closed form). Similar to differentiation,
int(f,v)
uses the symbolic object v as the variable of integration, rather than the variable determined by symvar. See how int works by looking at this table.
Mathematical Operation | MATLAB^{®} Command |
---|---|
| int(x^n) or int(x^n,x) |
| int(sin(2*x), 0, pi/2) or int(sin(2*x), x, 0, pi/2) |
g = cos(at + b)
| g = cos(a*t + b) int(g) or int(g, t) |
| int(besselj(1, z)) or int(besselj(1, z), z) |
In contrast to differentiation, symbolic integration is a more complicated task. A number of difficulties can arise in computing the integral:
The antiderivative, F, may not exist in closed form.
The antiderivative may define an unfamiliar function.
The antiderivative may exist, but the software can't find it.
The software could find the antiderivative on a larger computer, but runs out of time or memory on the available machine.
Nevertheless, in many cases, MATLAB can perform symbolic integration successfully. For example, create the symbolic variables
syms a b theta x y n u z
The following table illustrates integration of expressions containing those variables.
f | int(f) |
---|---|
syms x n f = x^n; | int(f) ans = piecewise([n == -1, log(x)], [n ~= -1, x^(n + 1)/(n + 1)]) |
syms y f = y^(-1); | int(f) ans = log(y) |
syms x n f = n^x; | int(f) ans = n^x/log(n) |
syms a b theta f = sin(a*theta+b); | int(f) ans = -cos(b + a*theta)/a |
syms u f = 1/(1+u^2); | int(f) ans = atan(u) |
syms x f = exp(-x^2); | int(f) ans = (pi^(1/2)*erf(x))/2 |
In the last example, exp(-x^2), there is no formula for the integral involving standard calculus expressions, such as trigonometric and exponential functions. In this case, MATLAB returns an answer in terms of the error function erf.
If MATLAB is unable to find an answer to the integral of a function f, it just returns int(f).
Definite integration is also possible.
Definite Integral | Command |
---|---|
| int(f, a, b) |
| int(f, v, a, b) |
Here are some additional examples.
f | a, b | int(f, a, b) |
---|---|---|
syms x f = x^7; | a = 0; b = 1; | int(f, a, b) ans = 1/8 |
syms x f = 1/x; | a = 1; b = 2; | int(f, a, b) ans = log(2) |
syms x f = log(x)*sqrt(x); | a = 0; b = 1; | int(f, a, b) ans = -4/9 |
syms x f = exp(-x^2); | a = 0; b = inf; | int(f, a, b) ans = pi^(1/2)/2 |
syms z f = besselj(1,z)^2; | a = 0; b = 1; | int(f, a, b) ans = hypergeom([3/2, 3/2], [2, 5/2, 3], -1)/12 |
For the Bessel function (besselj) example, it is possible to compute a numerical approximation to the value of the integral, using the double function. The commands
syms z a = int(besselj(1,z)^2,0,1)
return
a = hypergeom([3/2, 3/2], [2, 5/2, 3], -1)/12
and the command
a = double(a)
returns
a = 0.0717
One of the subtleties involved in symbolic integration is the "value" of various parameters. For example, if a is any positive real number, the expression
is the positive, bell shaped curve that tends to 0 as x tends to ±∞. You can create an example of this curve, for a = 1/2, using the following commands:
syms x
a = sym(1/2);
f = exp(-a*x^2);
ezplot(f)
However, if you try to calculate the integral
without assigning a value to a, MATLAB assumes that a represents a complex number, and therefore returns a piecewise answer that depends on the argument of a. If you are only interested in the case when a is a positive real number, use assume to set an assumption on a:
syms a assume(a > 0);
Now you can calculate the preceding integral using the commands
syms x f = exp(-a*x^2); int(f, x, -inf, inf)
This returns
ans = pi^(1/2)/a^(1/2)
To calculate the integral
for complex values of a, enter
syms a x clear f = 1/(a^2 + x^2); F = int(f, x, -inf, inf)
syms is used with the clear option to clear the all assumptions on a. For more information about symbolic variables and assumptions on them, see Delete Symbolic Objects and Their Assumptions.
The preceding commands produce the complex output
F = (pi*signIm(i/a))/a
The function signIm is defined as:
To evaluate F at a = 1 + i, enter
g = subs(F, 1 + i)
g = pi*(1/2 - i/2)
double(g)
ans = 1.5708 - 1.5708i